ABSTRACT. Rationality is social (reason places requirements on our interactions and relationships with others). Adopting rational habits helps us to develop rationality. Passive beings should implement reason’s guidance. (Kisner) Spinoza’s theory of affect correlates mental and bodily well-being. Affect is central to Spinoza’s account of individuation. Spinoza’s portrait of affect redefines human action and freedom. Spinoza aims to redefine the reality of decision, or mental determination. (Sharp) pp. 12–21

Keywords: Spinoza; reason; human freedom; politics, ethics

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Spiru Haret University

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