Abstract. In Plato’s work, techne (know-how) opposes to episteme (theoretical science which depends on the power of the mind). Technology today is technoscience, the knowledge par excellence, the materialized science of modern times. If the Rousseau Discours criticizes illusions of progress, it is in the 20th and 21st centuries that criticism of the technique takes its philosophical dimension and this kind of philosophical and ethical debate makes the purpose of this paper. We live in an era of biotechnological discoveries which raise moral and ethical issues about the nature of life, the notion of 'species', the instrumentalization and appropriation what is alive by humans. The Genetic genius and biotechnology are revolutionizing the planet. But how far should it be considered a "research activity"? What are the "fundamental ethical principles"? Paul Valery is against the science experiments and manipulations that transform nature. Trivializing life, it will end to be considered a mechanic, as a set of chemical reactions. Without doubt, the revolution of transgenic products raises passions and polemics. Without demonizing science and technology, one should instead consider the status of new biotechnologies and the problems they pose. The technical choices imply consequences; it is more important than ever, to find transdisciplinary paths of a science and technology to be at the service of men and of tomorrow's society. pp. 11–28


Keywords: technique, genetic engineering, biotechnology, Utopia, abundance,

ethics, future, philosophy

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